Urology is the branch of medicine which focuses on the surgical and medical diseases of the male and the female urinary tract system.
Despite the fact that the urinary tract is normally sterile, Cystitis ( inflammation of the bladder) is one of the most frequent inflammation due to infection.
The baldder, in fact, is often the target of bacterias and viruses coming form the rectum and the genitals and, owing to their anatomy, women are commonly more at risk than men.
Diagnosis is generally quite easy as symtoms are usually clear: urge to urinate together with pain in the pelvic region are the most frequent and annoying ones and temperature may be associated as well.
Fortunately, this kind of cystitis is a condition which is usually treated successfully with antibiotics and it very rarely complicates. However, in this that we may define an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, prevention strategies for recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) would be more desirable before antibiotic prophylaxis or treatment. In contrast to antibiotic therapy, which aims at eradicating pathogens, bladder instillation of combined Hyaluronic Acid and Chondroitin Sulfate targets bacterial adherence to the bladder mucosa: while a damaged glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer facilitates bacterial adherence and therefore recurrent UTIs, a repaired GAG layer is capable of preventing any adherence.
However, there is another kind of cystitis which may turn into a real disability for the sufferer: Interstitial Cystitis (IC).
Philadelphia surgeron Joseph Parris published the first record on IC in 1836.
This condition is described as a Bladder Pain Syndrome (BPS), a chronic condition of unknown cause associated with urge to urinate especially at night, pelvic pain or discomfort in the pelvic region and sterile urine.
This results in a low quality of life comparable to patients with rheumatoid arthritis, chronic cancer pain, or a patient on kidney dialysis.
The patient afflicted by IC struggles with a damaged urothelium, the bladder lining.
In this condition the surface GAG layer is damaged and chemicals contained in the urine and irritating substances leak into the bladder submucosal tissues causing pain and inflammation.
IC can complicate causing ulceration and bleeding of the bladder’s lining and can lead to scarring and stiffening of the organ.
Doctors do not fully understand why the symptoms worsen at particular times or disappear and then reappear months or years later. There is no cure and treatments are directed at reducing the severity of symptoms.
However, a treatment which combines Hyaluronic Acid (which is a main component of epithelial tissue) and Chondroitin Sulfate which is abundant in extracellular matrix and is important in maintaining the structural integrity of tissues, can prevent a severe damage of the bladder’s lining, enhancing its healing process.

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